Causes Of Failure Of 1962 Constitution

The causes of failure of 1962 constitution of Pakistan includes dictatorship, Presidential form of government, secularism, unicameral legislature, lack of provincial autonomy, lack of checks and balances, misuse of power, no fundamental rights, the rise of Bhutto, the war of 1965, protests and unpopular constitution.

Causes Of Failure Of 1962 Constitution

Causes Of Failure Of 1962 Constitution

Like the failure of the 1956 Constitution, the Constitution of 1962 also failed to lead Pakistan to achieve greatness and become a perfect example of a democratic and Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

The following are the main causes of failure of 1962 constitution of Pakistan:

  1. Dictatorship
  2. Presidential form of Government
  3. Secularism
  4. Unicameral Legislature
  5. Lack of Provincial Autonomy
  6. Lack of Check and Balance
  7. Misuse of Power
  8. No Fundamental Rights
  9. Rise of Bhutto
  10. War of 1965
  11. Protests
  12. Unpopular Constitution

1. Dictatorship

The constitution of 1962 was given by one person General Muhammad Ayub Khan, who himself promulgated the previous constitution. The main thing in the constitution was the President. It made the President center of power and a dictator. He had everything in control and he was not answerable before anybody. We can say that this constitution was presented to benefit an individual but not for the country.

2. Presidential form of Government

The Presidential form of Government was kind of a unique salient feature of 1962 constitution but it did not change or impact the country in any way. Though it gifted a lot of power to the President which made it to the part of this list.

3. Secularism

General Muhammad Ayub Khan proposed that he would govern the country by Islamic Ideology but he failed and promoted secularism in the country. He removed the word “Islamic” and named the country “Republic of Pakistan” which was changed back to “Islamic Republic of Pakistan” by an amendment after it was opposed by the people.

4. Unicameral Legislature

Though the main problem of this constitution was that it introduced a Presidential dictator who had the power to reject laws etc, somehow unicameral legislature fell in the causes of failure of 1962 constitution.

5. Lack of Provincial Autonomy

The constitution of 1962 did not provide the autonomy to provinces. The President also had the power regarding the establishment of a provincial government, which effected the separation of power.

6. Lack of Check and Balance

In this constitution, there were no principles for check and balance rather the President had a dictatorship which became one of the reasons of failure of 1962 constitution.

7. Misuse of Power

Because dictatorship was at its peak using this constitution, misuse of power was a necessary element found in every aspect of government which also led to failure of 1962 constitution.

8. No Fundamental Rights

The constitution of 1962 was the only constitution of the three constitutions of Pakistan, which initially did not provide fundamental rights for the citizens of Pakistan. Although some fundamental rights were added to it through amendment. This thing also proved that this constitution was not enforced for people but for one person, hence failed.

9. Rise of Bhutto

Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto who was a foreign minister resigned from his ministry and joined the protests against President General Muhammad Ayub Khan. The rise of Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto against the Dictatorship of President General Muhammad Ayub Khan became the reason for the failure of 1962 constitution.

10. War of 1965

The War of 1965 is one of the causes of failure of 1962 constitution. It created an element of mistrust between President General Muhammad Ayub Khan and the people of Pakistan. Mainly it damaged the economy of the country.

11. Protests

Protests and strikes by the students and political parties against the dictatorship of President General Muhammad Ayub Khan also became one of the causes of failure of 1962 constitution.

12. Unpopular Constitution

This constitution was not demanded by the public rather it was enforced in the country by General Muhammad Ayub Khan to dictate the country.

Conclusion

In the light of above causes of failure of 1962 constitution, this constitution was promulgated by Martial law imposed by General Yahya Khan.

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